2021.10.23 01:12 12nb34 “Over time, the B cells that initially produce the ‘winning’ autoantibodies begin to recruit other B cells to produce additional damaging autoantibodies—just as ripples spread out when a single pebble is dropped into water,” said Degn.
/* August 31, 2017
Harvard Medical School: Battle of the B Cells
Researchers probe what fuels “runaway train” of autoimmune diseases
By KAT J. McALPINE
Epitope spreading is a hallmark aspect of autoimmune disease, as it leads to widespread immune attack against the body’s own tissues. Understanding what triggers this phenomenon could open the door to new therapies designed to halt the autoimmune response in its tracks.
“It has been a longstanding observation in the clinic that autoimmune diseases evolve over time, attacking an ever-expanding array of organs and tissues,” said Søren Degn, a research fellow at Boston Children’s and first author of the new study. “This presents in the patient as a broadening of clinical symptoms, which can include joint pain, kidney damage and severe skin rashes. But, until now, we’ve largely been in the dark about how this process occurs.”
Once the autoimmune response is triggered, Carroll says the “runaway train pulls out of the station,” and the immune system begins to go after other, similar autoantigens elsewhere in the body.
“Over time, the B cells that initially produce the ‘winning’ autoantibodies begin to recruit other B cells to produce additional damaging autoantibodies—just as ripples spread out when a single pebble is dropped into water,” said Degn.
“This finding was such a surprise,” said Carroll. “It not only tells us that autoreactive B cells are competing inside germinal centers to design an autoantibody, but then we also see that the immune response broadens to attack other tissues in the body, leading to epitope spreading at the speed of wildfire.”
For now, the team says, understanding how B-cell activity in germinal centers relates to epitope spreading is a leap in the right direction. They speculate that a therapy that blocks germinal centers, which act as the immune system’s working memory, might one day be used to halt the vicious cycle of autoimmune diseases.
“Blocking germinal centers in the midst of an autoimmune response could potentially block the epitope spreading process,” said Carroll. “If you could stop the adaptive immune system for a transient amount of time, it might allow the body to reset its immune responses and shut off the autoreactivity.”
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2021.10.23 01:12 gamerofsilence 1/35 spideath build
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2021.10.23 01:12 Quiet_Cupcakess How would you disarm a tuna sandwich landmine that your bro just stepped on?
2021.10.23 01:12 voterosticon New Doge tweet from Elon!
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2021.10.23 01:12 carlosnunezz Worrying dots on my Pachira Aquatica. Plant kept in the same spot for 2 years, repotted last year, same watering intervals. Been doing great until last month when these dots started appearing 😢 Help please! 🙏🏻🙏🏻🙏🏻
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2021.10.23 01:12 yes-ok-0615 Insulin for fasting
So I know it's normal to have to up your nighttime insulin dose as you get further along due to your body needing more insulin, but is it also normal to not have to increase? I've been on 20u for almost 4 weeks (I'm 34 weeks and started at 30) and my fasting is still under what it should be with a few spikes here and there, but no high trends. For example, I can be 88 one day, then 92, 97, 80, 85, etc. Just curious if there is anyone else who has been able to stay on the same dose throughout their pregnancy!
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2021.10.23 01:12 Engineer-Gaming69 Question
2021.10.23 01:12 trentpicc I connect my PS3 to my TV via a HDMI cable, how do I hear game audio through my USB 2 headphones?
So as the title says, that is a photo of the inputs on my TV, some more info: - I connect my ps3 to a 4k TV with 1 hdmi cable. Sound goes n through the TV as normal. - I would like to connect headphones which have a normal USB 2 port so I can hear game audio (not just chat audio) through them. - I tried connecting the headphones directly to the PS3 - I only hear chat audio. - I've tried connecting them to the USB plug in the TV, I hear TV audio, but not PS3 audio. - I figure I need something that goes into the audio out function of my tv, some adapter that will connector to the USB 2 and I'll be good to go? I'm just really unfamiliar with audio stuff so not really sure what even goes into the audio out port.
I appreciate you reading, If someone could let my know how and if it's possible to get PS3 game audio through headphones, I wanna hunt some PS3 trophies with headphones on lol
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2021.10.23 01:12 burndaherbs Active? thank you
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2021.10.23 01:12 TrannyHunterWorld Does anyone know where to buy adult trading cards?
Ever since ebay stopped allowing the sale of adult items it has been much harder to find adult cards and the ones that do make it onto eBay are usually overpriced.
Has anyone found anywhere good to buy since the eBay change? Etsy & Amazon didnt have much, I still need to check Mercari & let go but I doubt I’ll find much there.
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2021.10.23 01:12 Dave_the_babe Feeling used
I like to believe I am smart sometimes, especially when it comes to math. This year I have a semi-close friend in my math class who I’ve known since sophomore year. (We are seniors).
Everyday she texts me, asking if I have done the math homework and for me to send her my work. At first I wanted to be nice and help her. Lately, I’ve started to feel used. I started to notice her not paying attention in class and complaining that she doesn’t understand. She always asks me to help her cheat on tests and quizzes by showing/letting her glance at my paper. I do not feel comfortable doing so because I respect the teacher and I have worked very hard to maintain my grade in the class and I find it unfair. She yells at me whenever I don’t help her and takes it personally. I lie to her saying that the teacher was looking.
She normally tells me about her problems and girl drama she has. I have been going through a lot of stuff lately and I tried to vent to her but she made it about herself and ignored me. This is the main reason I feel used, but she considers me a close friend and tells me personal things. I feel bad and I don’t know what to do. I don’t want to hurt her.
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2021.10.23 01:12 nepoe What type of Club C's are these?
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2021.10.23 01:12 3xmoon Targeted Advertising, Cars & Firearms, and Drugs & Alcohol.
It would be nice if media networks stopped advertising cars and alcohol to the same people that continue to drive and consume drinking alcohol while shifting the blame back onto those who fell for their lack of judgement. Both products are advertised to young adults with flashy and overhyped packaging with little if any warnings on their behalf, the same majority with the highest mortality rate on the roads.
Will these networks stand up to their hungry advertising campaigners to save the lives of those already sold out on the idea that the car industry is their ticket to happiness, and that alcohol will also make them happy? Becoming dependant on these products especially in combination without any real visualisation or discussion of the side-effects is reckless, though blame is always shifted onto the individual or the community and advertising continues in the same fashion.
How many incidents do you give a drunken gun holder his licence increase back? Why does this person need a gun, maybe they've been manipulated by the media they have consumed on the TV or in their community. Areas with consumer firearms can probably get this but most continue to give drivers who deviate from the road laws made to protect them and those exposed to their actions their licence back after a given and/time or payment, further feeding into their dependency issue.
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2021.10.23 01:12 alexaclova Men of the Harem - Episode 40
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2021.10.23 01:12 Even_Ad_399 Men should know their female partners
Hello everyone! My name is Lee, I am 33 years old, I am now in the United States, I like the free and clear life in the United States, where I will not be oppressed by politics, and I plan to start a happy family here.
My hobbies are traveling, shopping, buying clothes, food, diving, swimming, bowling, racing, hiking.
Any common hobbies?
I am cheerful, lively and a positive little girl. I am a sweet girl who likes romanticism. If you want, you'd better come from America because I am from Singapore I like to read because it enriches my knowledge; I like to run because it sharpens my will.
I have many strengths, I am careful and conscientious, I don't let go of every little detail, I often help other children in my study life, and I am also a little helper to my teachers. I also have an understanding heart and always think of others. In addition to these strengths, I also have some weaknesses, such as I am not brave enough, a little timid, sometimes slow to do things.
I also like to help my mom at home to do some chores that I can do.
Send me messages so that we can get to know each other and become friends or travel together.
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)
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2021.10.23 01:12 XThePariahX Spooktober house
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2021.10.23 01:12 hehethanks Any woman available for fun
2021.10.23 01:12 beach-in-life HELP: Im struggling to understand. For IF/OMAD (and other eating regimen) how do you ensure you are consuming enough fiber, vitamins and minerals?
I’ve started IF (16:8) and basically eat 2x/day. Today, I had a huge breakfast that consisted of 1 egg, 1 turkey sausage, 3 falafel (store bought) and because I wanted it….Ezekiel toast with Mykonos “cream cheese” with raspberry jelly. Then for my last meal…vegan “fish” sandwich on 1 slice of bread, pickles, 2 slices tomatoes with 1/3 slice of cheese. I did add air fried potatoes. But in the end, not very healthy nutritional day. So how do you guys incorporate healthy meals/foods into IF/OMAD? Do you just take supplements to make up the difference? I don’t want to weigh or count foods…but maybe I need to? The feedback is greatly appreciated!
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2021.10.23 01:12 littlekalle [PS4]H:be25 fixer.W:amazing offer of junk.
2021.10.23 01:12 PhantomX98 Collapsible File Storage Box with Zippers $43.79, FREE FOR AMAZON USA PRODUCT TESTERS, DM Me If You Are Interested
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2021.10.23 01:12 Szerra Outfit of the day: Early Snow, Nail Art: Joyful Time
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2021.10.23 01:12 Redroses19 IF YOUR ACCOUNT IS LESS THAN THREE DAYS OLD THEN BE THE FIRST TO USE THIS CODE!! $100 BONUS CASH AND FREE DIGS IN CASH MINER!! 🤑🤑💰💰
2021.10.23 01:12 Daveoohhh Anyone participated/participating in the #100daysofcode challenge?
I’m planning to start soon and just curious if anyone else has done it or is doing it. I’m going to worth through various material. I don’t have a “plan”, but by the end I would love to have created a full web application using either flask or Django!
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2021.10.23 01:12 Squidboy2002 Pixel Gun devs when they chose the Skin contest winners
2021.10.23 01:12 Dogelock54 Unit 01 in the evening of Tokyo-3
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